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3. Using Hardhat

Use Hardhat to quickly build a dApp on ChainIDE.

1. Open Sandbox

Note: Sandbox functionality is only available after logging in to ChainIDE via GitHub.
Open Sandbox

2. Quick Start

We will explore the basics of creating a Hardhat project with a sample contract, tests of that contract, and a script to deploy it.
To create the sample project, run npx hardhat init in your project folder:
$ npx hardhat init
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​
👷 Welcome to Hardhat v2.19.1 👷‍
​
? What do you want to do? …
❯ Create a JavaScript project
Create a TypeScript project
Create an empty hardhat.config.js
Quit
Let’s create the JavaScript or TypeScript project and go through these steps to compile, test and deploy the sample contract. We recommend using TypeScript, but if you are not familiar with it just pick JavaScript.

3. Running tasks

To first get a quick sense of what's available and what's going on, run npx hardhat in your project folder:
$ npx hardhat
Hardhat version 2.9.9
​
Usage: hardhat [GLOBAL OPTIONS] <TASK> [TASK OPTIONS]
​
GLOBAL OPTIONS:
​
--config A Hardhat config file.
--emoji Use emoji in messages.
--help Shows this message, or a task's help if its name is provided
--max-memory The maximum amount of memory that Hardhat can use.
--network The network to connect to.
--show-stack-traces Show stack traces.
--tsconfig A TypeScript config file.
--verbose Enables Hardhat verbose logging
--version Shows hardhat's version.
​
​
AVAILABLE TASKS:
​
check Check whatever you need
clean Clears the cache and deletes all artifacts
compile Compiles the entire project, building all artifacts
console Opens a hardhat console
coverage Generates a code coverage report for tests
flatten Flattens and prints contracts and their dependencies
help Prints this message
node Starts a JSON-RPC server on top of Hardhat Network
run Runs a user-defined script after compiling the project
test Runs mocha tests
typechain Generate Typechain typings for compiled contracts
verify Verifies contract on Etherscan
​
To get help for a specific task run: npx hardhat help [task]
The list of available tasks includes the built-in ones and also those that came with any installed plugins. npx hardhat is your starting point to find out what tasks are available to run.

4. Compiling your contracts

Next, if you take a look in the contracts/ folder, you'll see Lock.sol:
// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.9;
​
// Uncomment this line to use console.log
// import "hardhat/console.sol";
​
contract Lock {
uint public unlockTime;
address payable public owner;
​
event Withdrawal(uint amount, uint when);
​
constructor(uint _unlockTime) payable {
require(
block.timestamp < _unlockTime,
"Unlock time should be in the future"
);
​
unlockTime = _unlockTime;
owner = payable(msg.sender);
}
​
function withdraw() public {
// Uncomment this line, and the import of "hardhat/console.sol", to print a log in your terminal
// console.log("Unlock time is %o and block timestamp is %o", unlockTime, block.timestamp);
​
require(block.timestamp >= unlockTime, "You can't withdraw yet");
require(msg.sender == owner, "You aren't the owner");
​
emit Withdrawal(address(this).balance, block.timestamp);
​
owner.transfer(address(this).balance);
}
}
​
To compile it, simply run:
npx hardhat compile
If you created a TypeScript project, this task will also generate TypeScript bindings using TypeChain.

5. Testing your contracts

Your project comes with tests that use Mocha, Chai, and Ethers.js.
If you take a look in the test/ folder, you'll see a test file:
import {
time,
loadFixture,
} from "@nomicfoundation/hardhat-toolbox/network-helpers";
import { anyValue } from "@nomicfoundation/hardhat-chai-matchers/withArgs";
import { expect } from "chai";
import { ethers } from "hardhat";
​
describe("Lock", function () {
// We define a fixture to reuse the same setup in every test.
// We use loadFixture to run this setup once, snapshot that state,
// and reset Hardhat Network to that snapshot in every test.
async function deployOneYearLockFixture() {
const ONE_YEAR_IN_SECS = 365 * 24 * 60 * 60;
const ONE_GWEI = 1_000_000_000;
​
const lockedAmount = ONE_GWEI;
const unlockTime = (await time.latest()) + ONE_YEAR_IN_SECS;
​
// Contracts are deployed using the first signer/account by default
const [owner, otherAccount] = await ethers.getSigners();
​
const Lock = await ethers.getContractFactory("Lock");
const lock = await Lock.deploy(unlockTime, { value: lockedAmount });
​
return { lock, unlockTime, lockedAmount, owner, otherAccount };
}
​
describe("Deployment", function () {
it("Should set the right unlockTime", async function () {
const { lock, unlockTime } = await loadFixture(deployOneYearLockFixture);
​
expect(await lock.unlockTime()).to.equal(unlockTime);
});
​
it("Should set the right owner", async function () {
const { lock, owner } = await loadFixture(deployOneYearLockFixture);
​
expect(await lock.owner()).to.equal(owner.address);
});
​
it("Should receive and store the funds to lock", async function () {
const { lock, lockedAmount } = await loadFixture(
deployOneYearLockFixture
);
​
expect(await ethers.provider.getBalance(lock.target)).to.equal(
lockedAmount
);
});
​
it("Should fail if the unlockTime is not in the future", async function () {
// We don't use the fixture here because we want a different deployment
const latestTime = await time.latest();
const Lock = await ethers.getContractFactory("Lock");
await expect(Lock.deploy(latestTime, { value: 1 })).to.be.revertedWith(
"Unlock time should be in the future"
);
});
});
​
describe("Withdrawals", function () {
describe("Validations", function () {
it("Should revert with the right error if called too soon", async function () {
const { lock } = await loadFixture(deployOneYearLockFixture);
​
await expect(lock.withdraw()).to.be.revertedWith(
"You can't withdraw yet"
);
});
​
it("Should revert with the right error if called from another account", async function () {
const { lock, unlockTime, otherAccount } = await loadFixture(
deployOneYearLockFixture
);
​
// We can increase the time in Hardhat Network
await time.increaseTo(unlockTime);
​
// We use lock.connect() to send a transaction from another account
await expect(lock.connect(otherAccount).withdraw()).to.be.revertedWith(
"You aren't the owner"
);
});
​
it("Shouldn't fail if the unlockTime has arrived and the owner calls it", async function () {
const { lock, unlockTime } = await loadFixture(
deployOneYearLockFixture
);
​
// Transactions are sent using the first signer by default
await time.increaseTo(unlockTime);
​
await expect(lock.withdraw()).not.to.be.reverted;
});
});
​
describe("Events", function () {
it("Should emit an event on withdrawals", async function () {
const { lock, unlockTime, lockedAmount } = await loadFixture(
deployOneYearLockFixture
);
​
await time.increaseTo(unlockTime);
​
await expect(lock.withdraw())
.to.emit(lock, "Withdrawal")
.withArgs(lockedAmount, anyValue); // We accept any value as `when` arg
});
});
​
describe("Transfers", function () {
it("Should transfer the funds to the owner", async function () {
const { lock, unlockTime, lockedAmount, owner } = await loadFixture(
deployOneYearLockFixture
);
​
await time.increaseTo(unlockTime);
​
await expect(lock.withdraw()).to.changeEtherBalances(
[owner, lock],
[lockedAmount, -lockedAmount]
);
});
});
});
});
​
You can run your tests with npx hardhat test:
$ npx hardhat test
Generating typings for: 2 artifacts in dir: typechain-types for target: ethers-v6
Successfully generated 6 typings!
Compiled 2 Solidity files successfully
​
​
Lock
Deployment
✔ Should set the right unlockTime (610ms)
✔ Should set the right owner
✔ Should receive and store the funds to lock
✔ Should fail if the unlockTime is not in the future
Withdrawals
Validations
✔ Should revert with the right error if called too soon
✔ Should revert with the right error if called from another account
✔ Shouldn't fail if the unlockTime has arrived and the owner calls it
Events
✔ Should emit an event on withdrawals
Transfers
✔ Should transfer the funds to the owner
​
​
9 passing (790ms)

6. Deploying your contracts

Next, to deploy the contract we will use a Hardhat script.
Inside the scripts/ folder you will find a file with the following code:
import { ethers } from "hardhat";
​
async function main() {
const currentTimestampInSeconds = Math.round(Date.now() / 1000);
const unlockTime = currentTimestampInSeconds + 60;
​
const lockedAmount = ethers.parseEther("0.001");
​
const lock = await ethers.deployContract("Lock", [unlockTime], {
value: lockedAmount,
});
​
await lock.waitForDeployment();
​
console.log(
`Lock with ${ethers.formatEther(
lockedAmount
)}ETH and unlock timestamp ${unlockTime} deployed to ${lock.target}`
);
}
​
// We recommend this pattern to be able to use async/await everywhere
// and properly handle errors.
main().catch((error) => {
console.error(error);
process.exitCode = 1;
});
​
You can run it using npx hardhat run scripts/deploy.ts:
$ npx hardhat run scripts/deploy.ts
Lock with 1 ETH deployed to: 0x5FbDB2315678afecb367f032d93F642f64180aa3

7. Connecting a wallet or Dapp to Hardhat Network

By default, Hardhat will spin up a new in-memory instance of Hardhat Network on startup. It's also possible to run Hardhat Network in a standalone fashion so that external clients can connect to it. This could be a wallet, your Dapp front-end, or a script.
To run Hardhat Network in this way, run npx hardhat node:
$ npx hardhat node
Started HTTP and WebSocket JSON-RPC server at http://127.0.0.1:8545/
This will expose a JSON-RPC interface to Hardhat Network. To use it connect your wallet or application to http://127.0.0.1:8545.
If you want other clients to access the Hardhat instance started above through a link, refer to ChainIDE - Port Forwarding to forward the HTTP 8545 port, and copy its address (for example: https://sandbox-1e82a87a951241179f98494a6dbb2617-ethereum-8545.uat-sandbox.chainide.com).
If you want to connect Hardhat to this node, for example to run a deployment script against it, you simply need to run it using --network localhost.
To try this, start a node with npx hardhat node and re-run the deployment script using the network option:
npx hardhat run scripts/deploy.ts --network localhost
Congrats! You have created a project and compiled, tested and deployed a smart contract.

8. Continue learning

This quick start provided fundamental knowledge about the Hardhat project lifecycle, but there is still much more to learn. Please continue reading the official Hardhat documentation and XDC: Using Hardhat.